Reproduction in bacteria mainly occurs by these two methods: Asexual Reproduction and Sexual Reproduction.
1. Asexual reproduction: In this method, the reproduction of bacteria takes place through binary fission. In the process of binary fission, a bacterial cell divides into two daughter cells of the same type.
2. Sexual reproduction: In this method neither gametes are formed nor fertilization takes place in the bacteria. In this, only genetic material is exchanged. This process of exchange of genetic material is called Genetic Recombination.
Genetic Recombination occurs by three methods:
- Conjugation: In this method, there is union of two cells and transfer of DNA.
- Transduction: In this method, the DNA of one bacterium is mixed with the DNA of another bacterium through a virus.
- Transformation: In this method, the bacterium changes its genetic form by absorbing DNA from the external medium.